Determination of Types and Frequency of Urinary Incontinence in Women
Original Article
P: 180-184
April 2024

Determination of Types and Frequency of Urinary Incontinence in Women

Bezmialem Science 2024;12(2):180-184
1. İstanbul Gelişim University Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, İstanbul, Türkiye
2. Bezmialem Vakıf University Faculty of Medicine Hospital, Clinic of Internal Medicine, İstanbul, Türkiye
No information available.
No information available
Received Date: 21.10.2023
Accepted Date: 07.12.2023
Publish Date: 03.05.2024



Finding out the forms, frequency, and contributing variables of female urine incontinence was the goal of this study.


The research is cross-sectional and descriptive. In this study, 408 women who were at least 18 years old participated. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form and the Women’s Personal Data Identification Form were used to gather study data.


It was discovered in this study that 37.3% of women had urine incontinence. The quality of life was found to be minimally impacted by urinary incontinence (2.81±4.02). Urinary incontinence frequency was found to be significantly correlated with age, body mass index, number of births, chronic conditions, normal delivery, menopause status, and these factors (p<0.05).


Women who experience urinary incontinence, particularly as they age, suffer from a disorder that impairs their quality of life. To help women live better lives, it is critical that medical professionals-especially nurses-screen for urine incontinence in high-risk populations, refer patients to a facility for treatment when needed, and offer education in tandem.

Keywords: Prevalence, risk factors, urinary incontinence


One prevalent and significant issue that has an impact on women’s health is urinary incontinence (UI). The inability to regulate urinate unintentionally is often referred to as UI. UI can have negative physical, psychological and social effects, significantly reducing quality of life. This problem, which is especially common among women, can occur at different stages of life and may be associated with factors such as lifestyle, hormonal changes, and childbirth (1,2). According to studies, the prevalence of UI ranges from 9% to 75%, with women experiencing the highest rates.
It is stated that this prevalence increases especially with age, obesity, menopause, and number of births (3-5).

Nursing is a multifaceted health field that aims to support the physical and psychosocial health of the individual. Women’s health is an important issue that nurses are particularly interested in and work on. In this context, a common problem such as UI constitutes an important part of women’s health (6-8). The goal of internal medicine nursing is to maximize patients’ medical care by addressing a broad variety of health issues. Internal medicine nurses should be aware of and responsive to conditions like obesity and advanced age, which are major contributors to UI and are also risk factors for the condition. Therefore, UI is an issue that internal medicine nurses encounter and play an active role in its management. By supporting patients and their families in managing their incontinence, nurses can enhance the quality of life for individuals. Because they view this illness, which has a detrimental impact on quality of life, as a natural process that begins with birth and aging, women do not apply to medical facilities. Research on this topic has been done, according to an analysis of the literature. To increase awareness, additional research is necessary. The purpose of this study was to identify the different forms, frequency, and associated factors of female UI. The study’s findings will add to the body of knowledge by directing medical professionals in the diagnosis, treatment, and education of patients with risk factors for UI.


Study design: The research was cross-sectional and descriptive.

Sample of the research: Turkish women who were over the age of eighteen made up the study’s sample. Informed about the research and their rights, 408 willing participants in the study gave their informed consent prior to the study’s commencement. Participants’ rights were all upheld, and the concepts of voluntariness and confidentiality were taken into consideration.

Data collection method: Online surveys were used to gather data between July 18, 2023, and September 1, 2023.

Data collection: A questionnaire outlining each person’s personal traits and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short questionnaire (ICIQ-SF) were used to gather the data.

Personal characteristics identification form of individuals

A 13-item form was used to gather the data, which were gathered through a review of the literature. The questions covered the following topics: age, height, weight, height and age of marriage, education level, presence of chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease), smoking, number of births, type of birth, whether the birth was an intervention, status of miscarriages, whether the baby weighed more than 4 kg, and menopausal status.

International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form

Avery et al. (9) created the ICIQ-SF to evaluate user interface and its effects on quality of life. The number of the dimensions of the scale are four. Three dimensions are scored in the first place. Based on the individual’s complaints, the type of UI is determined by the answers to the fourth dimension, which is not assessed. The assessment allows for the individual evaluation of each sub-dimension’s score, and the influence of UI on quality of life is determined by adding the scores of the three dimensions. Instead of adding the dimension scores one at a time, scoring generally tends to produce a single score. The measure offers scores ranging from 0 to 21, where a low score denotes minimal impact of UI on quality of life and a high score denotes significant impact. Çetinel et al. (10) translated the ICIQ-SF into Turkish in 2004 and carried out a validity and reliability analysis. The scale’s Cronbach's alpha coefficient was determined to be 0.71. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient in this investigation was found to be 0.75.

Statistical Analysis

The statistical analysis in the study was conducted using the IBM SPSS statistics 26.0 application. Along with descriptive statistical techniques, the study data were evaluated (mean, standard deviation, frequency, percent). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine data that did not exhibit a normal distribution, and the Student's t-test was used to evaluate data that did. The correlation between the variables was assessed using Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses. The associations between the variables were assessed using the chi-squared test. An analysis of binary logistic regression was done to look at the impact of confounding variables. The significance level of p<0.05 and the 95% confidence range were used to analyze the results.

Ethical aspect of the study: Permission to begin the study was acquired from Bezmialem Vakıf University Ethics Committee, with decision number 2023/133 and date of June 7, 2023. Those who consented to take part in the study provided informed consent.


Table 1 displays the individual’s personal characteristics as well as the types and frequency of UI. The women’s average age was 41.12±12.34 years, with 69.9% having graduated from college and 70.1% being married. UI was found in 37.3% of the female participants. UI was shown to have a negligible impact on quality of life (2.81±4.02) (Table 1).

Table 1

Table 2 illustrates the association between individual traits and incontinence. Age, number of births, BMI, marital status, educational attainment, status of chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease), menopausal status, miscarriage, normal delivery, status of intervention delivery, and urine incontinence were found to be significantly correlated (p<0.05).

Table 2

Table 3 shows a significant positive connection (p<0.005) between the persons’ UI status and age, BMI, number of births, and intervention delivery. The study employed binary logistic regression analysis to examine the impact of age, BMI, number of births, and intervention delivery on the prevalence of urine incontinence in the participants. Age, BMI, and the number of births were revealed to be significant (p<0.05) in the binary logistic regression analysis, even in the absence of additional confounding variables. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that while there was a positive association between the delivery of interventions and UI, it was not statistically significant (p>0.05).

Table 3



According to this study, 37.3% of women reported having UI, and their quality of life was not significantly affected by them. The number of births, menopause, age, BMI, chronic illnesses, and normal delivery have all been linked to an increased risk of UI in women. Women who experience UI, particularly as they age, suffer from a disorder that impairs their quality of life. According to the results of this study, women typically regarded UI, which could also occur in middle age, as a normal ailment and did not seek medical attention for it. It is crucial that medical personnel, particularly nurses, screen for UI in high-risk populations, refer them to a facility when treatment is required. In order to enhance women’s quality of life, it is critical that health professionals especially nurses screen for UI in high-risk populations, refer them to a medical facility for treatment when appropriate, and offer concurrent training.


Ethics Committee Approval: Permission to begin the study was acquired from Bezmialem Vakıf University Ethics Committee, with decision number 2023/133 and date of June 7, 2023.

Informed Consent: Those who consented to take part in the study provided informed consent.

Authorship Contributions

Concept: N.K., M.K., Design: N.K., Data Collection or Processing: N.K., Analysis or Interpretation: M.K., Literature Search: N.K., Writing: N.K.

Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study received no financial support.


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