Original Article

Short-term Effect of Elastic Taping on Balance and Postural Control in Patients with Early-stage Parkinson’s Disease -a Non-controlled, Quasi-experimental Study


  • Evrim GÖZ
  • Raif ÇAKMUR
  • Birgül BALCI

Received Date: 18.03.2022 Accepted Date: 08.12.2022 Bezmialem Science 2023;11(2):221-228


Normal postural control and balance is achieved by the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular sensory information. The patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), on the other hand, experience postural control disorders due to the lack of integration of these senses. Elastic taping is effective in improving expected postural adjustments by increasing proprioception and trunk muscle activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the short term effect of single session elastic taping on balance and postural control in patients with early-stage PD.


Elastic tape was applied with posture correction techniques on the upper back of 23 patients with early-stage PD (18 men, 5 women) during “on” phase. The postural control and balance ability of patients was assessed with the limits of stability (LOS), Sit-to Stand, Walk Across and Tandem Walking Tests of NeuroCom Balance Master test device. The tests were repeated after elastic taping in all patients.


The maximum excursions and endpoint scores of LOS test, the speed of tandem walking test significantly increased after taping (Wilcoxon test, respectively; p=0.04, p=0.02, p<0.001). There was no significant difference between Walk Across and Sit to Stand results before and after elastic taping (Wilcoxon test, p>0.05).


Our study is the first to investigate the short-term effects of elastic taping on balance and postural control in PD. It was concluded that the application of elastic tape in patients with PD could enhance dynamic balance and postural control parameters for a short time under challenging and complex conditions.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, tape, balance, postural control, short-term


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized with motor, cognitive, emotional, autonomic and sensory impairments (1). Postural instability and balance impairment, which become evident as the disease progresses, could also be seen in the early-stage (2). Song et al. (3) reported that balance and postural control deficiencies could be detected in patients with early-stage PD by the use of evaluations involving complex tasks that challenged the neuromuscular system.

It is thought that in patients with PD, changes in the perception of verticalization due to impaired proprioception and somatosensory integration disorders, which lead to static and dynamic postural instability (4,5). Therefore, therapeutic approaches including active posture correction and proprioceptive stimulation are thought to be effective on axial symptoms (6).

In patients with PD, the reduced spinal movements cause an effort to maintain the body gravity line within the limits of stability and are usually compensated by increased trunk flexion which results in imbalance (4,5). Increased trunk flexion and the change in scapular position cause prolonged stress on muscle and joint structures, resulting in proprioceptive loss (7). It is known that even if there are no clinical findings of postural instability, postural synergies and hence postural control decrease in patients with early-stage PD especially under active challenging conditions (2,3).

Elastic taping aims to activate the proprioceptive system by increasing sensory stimuli with cutaneous mechanoreceptors, to improve anticipatory postural adjustments and activate trunk muscles and joints without restricting body movements. In the literature, it was showed that application of elastic taping on low back in non-specific chronic low back pain patients improved postural control in a short time period and elastic taping for postural correction in osteoporosis-associated thoracic kyphosis patients immediately improved the balance parameters (8,9). Studies have shown that elastic taping improves postural control and balance not only by increasing proprioceptive sensation, but also by determining the correct joint position for a comfortable and non-burdening posture (7,10). In recent years, it has been utilized in musculoskeletal and neurological diseases with the aim of increasing or inhibiting muscle activity, providing joint repositioning, preventing injuries and improving proprioception (11,12).

In the literature, within our knowledge, there are no studies examining the short-term effects of elastic taping on balance and postural control in patients with PD. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the short-term effects of single session elastic taping on balance and postural control in patients with early-stage PD. The hypothesis of the present study was that the application of single session elastic taping in patients with early-stage PD would improve balance and postural control in a short-term period.


Study Design


This study was carried out between February 2017 and June 2018 in Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation in cooperation with the Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology at Dokuz Eylül University. Patients who were diagnosed as having PD according to criteria of United Kingdom PD Society Brain Bank, had a Mini-Mental test score of ≥24, a modified Hoehn&Yahr scale score of ≤2, were aged ≥18 years and who were able to stand independently for minimum 1 minute and walk for at least 10 meters without any support and had stable clinical status were included the study. The exclusion criteria were neurological, orthopedic or visual dysfunctions irrelevant of PD, affecting walking and balance ability.

Ethics Approval

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Dokuz Eylül University with the protocol number 3013-GOA and decision number 2016/29-19. The objectives and methods were read to the patients who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study, and an informed consent form was signed. This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Sample Size

The sample size calculation was based on a similar study which examined the short term effects of elastic taping on balance in elderly with postural hyper kyphosis (for Limits of Stability outcomes) (13). The sample size was determined as 15 subjects using Epi Info TM 7 ( program based on 95% confidence interval, 80% power rate and 0.05 Type 1 error.


All patients were assessed before and after elastic taping application during the “on” phase. A physiotherapist who was trained and certified in taping, applied Kinesio Tex Gold FP elastic tape (5 cm) on the upper back of individuals with posture correction technique. The waterproof, porous, adhesive, 0.5 mm-thick tape was applied. This method was the application of a chemical-free elastic tape that mimiced the tissue and elasticity of human skin. Taping was applied starting from the acromioclavicular joint without stretching and went on with maximum stretching to the level of the thoracic 7th vertebra. Taping was terminated without stretching after 7 thoracic vertebrae levels. Two I-shaped elastic tapes were applied diagonally from the anterior of the right and left acromion towards the back (14). The subjects were re-assessed after a resting period for approximately 45 minutes. The application of elastic tape is shown in Figure 1.

Measurement Methods

The modified Hoehn & Yahr scale was used to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with PD. Stage 1 indicates the lowest level of disease severity, whereas stage 5 refers to the highest level (15,16). Participants with a Hoehn&Yahr score greater than 2 were excluded.

Objective Balance Assessment

The postural control and balance ability of patients were evaluated by using NeuroCom Balance Master device (NeuroCom System Version 8.1.0, B 100718, 1989-2004 NeuroCom® International Inc. USA) which measured the dynamic and static balance abilities (17). It has high test-retest reliability in assessing the postural stability and balance impairment of healthy individuals (18). It is a valid and reliable method to measure balance performance in patients with PD (19). The Balance Master consisted of 48.26x152.40 cm2 force plate connected to a computer including a software program that calculated the center of pressure relative to the platform coordinates. Force data were sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz. The objective balance assessments took place in a room free from external distractions. Before the assessment, the patients were positioned at standardized foot position on the force plate (Medial malleolus in horizontal line, calcaneus in vertical line). Before the objective balance assessment, trial tests of all evaluation parameters were performed for each patient in order to help the patients get used to the Balance Master device and to reduce the learning effect.

Postural Control

Limits of Stability (LOS)

The patient was asked to move the center of gravity as quickly as possible to 8 different targets (anterior-posterior, right-left and other directions) displayed on the computer screen while standing stationary above the center point determined on the platform. The time spent by patients for body moves (reaction time, sec.), the movement velocity (%/sec.), the last point that the subject could reach the target point (endpoint excursions, %), the distance to the target point (maximum excursions, %), and the linearity of the movement while moving towards the target point (directional control, %) were measured (20).


Tandem Walk Test

The patient was instructed to walk with tandem steps and stand stable at the end of the platform. The step width (cm), walking speed (cm/sec), and postural sways at the end of the pathway (deg/sec) were measured. Each test was repeated 3 times 20.

Walk Across Test

Step width (cm), step length (cm), and walking speed (cm/sec) were measured while the patient was walking on the platform at the speed which they felt comfortable and safe. Each test was repeated 3 times (20).

Sit-to-Stand Test

The patient stood up quickly from the 40.64 cm high platform he/she was sitting on without using her/his arms or hands and waited for 5 seconds for the sway of the center of gravity to be measured. The time from sitting to standing stable (sec), the index of body weight rising (%), the speed of the sway of center of gravity while standing stable (°/sec), and the body weight’s symmetry to right or left (%) were measured. Each test was repeated 3 times (20).

Statistical Analysis

The statistical analysis in this study was performed using “Statistical Package for Social Sciences” (SPSS) Version 22.0 (SPSS inc. Chicago, IL, ABD) program. The results were presented as means and standard deviation. Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the difference between the results before and after the elastic taping application. P<0.05 was accepted to be statistically significant (21).


In total, 23 patients with PD (18 males and 5 females) participated in the study. There was no allergic reaction in the patients after the application of elastic taping. The mean age of the patients was 64.52±6.28 years. Table 1 illustrates the demographic characteristics of the patients.

There was no significant difference between before and after taping outcomes of reaction time, movement speed and movement control parameters in terms of LOS test (p>0.05). The maximum excursion and endpoint values increased significantly after taping in patients with PD (p<0.05, Table 2).

There was no significant difference between before and after taping values of Walk Across and Sit to Stand Tests. The walking speed of tandem walk test decreased significantly after taping (p<0.05, Table 3).


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of single session elastic taping on dynamic balance and postural control parameters in patients with early-stage PD. The main result of our study was that the short-term effect of elastic taping on postural control and balance occurred in active and challenging conditions such as tandem walking and stability limits. The walking speed in Tandem Walk test, maximum excursions and endpoint values ​​in LOS test increased after elastic taping application.

Recognizing and evaluating impairment in balance and postural control are so important in the management of PD, as it directly affects walking, mobility, and falls (22). Since it is difficult to identify balance and postural control deficits in early-stage PD, it is thought that fall and balance disorders usually occur in the late stages of the disease (23-25). In the literature, it was reported that balance and postural control disorders occurred in early-stages of PD, but clinical tests were not sufficient to detect this, and advanced computerized static and dynamic postural stability assessments (like posturography or accelometer) provided more accurate parameters (24-26). Based on this information, we preferred to analyze the LOS test, Tandem Walk test, Walk Across test and Sit to Stand test data of the patients with the Balance Master System in our study. Based on this information, we preferred to analyze the LOS test, Tandem Walk test, Walk Across test and Sit to Stand test data of the patients with the Balance Master System in our study. Supportive approaches such as exercise and elastic taping to be applied after computerized balance and postural control evaluations in the early-stage of PD, may be effective in improving balance and postural control disorders and slowing the clinical course, by supporting the correct posture. It has been stated in recent studies that elastic taping can be used for postural correction and can be an effective form of cutaneous proprioceptive biofeedback (7). Therefore, in our study, we applied elastic tape with the postural correction technique to the upper back of patients with early-stage PD in order to increase proprioceptive feedback and support correct posture.

Postural stabilization is provided by the passive support of the osteoligamentous system, active support of the musculotendinous system and neural control. In PD, it is assumed that postural disorders develop due to musculotendinous changes such as decreased muscle flexibility, muscle endurance and muscle weakness and deficiency in neural control, therefore applications on the upper back area for these changes are thought to help improve posture (27). It has been shown that the active musculotendinous system and the neural control components of spinal stabilization are improved with the application of elastic banding, which contributes to postural control and affects the proprioceptive system in neurological diseases, thus supporting the spine in a neutral position (28,29). Elastic taping stimulates proprioceptive receptors by increasing motor nerve excitability and regulating muscle activity, and provides feedback on posture, thus increasing postural awareness during daily activities. Elastic taping has been shown to improve postural control and balance not only by increasing the proprioceptive sensation but also by determining the correct joint position for a comfortable, no weight-bearing posture (7,10,11,28).

When studies evaluating the short-term effect of upper back elastic taping in different disease groups were examined, it was observed that the effect of taping on the angle of kyphosis was frequently examined (9,13,14). However, in our study, kyphosis assessment was not performed because balance and postural control were evaluated in patients with early-stage PD who did not develop postural deformities. Greig et al. (14) reported that the decrease in the kyphosis angle they detected after taping could be due to the passive support of the tape and the active support of muscle contraction. In another study, it was reported that elastic taping helped to correct posture and increased stability limits in kyphotic elderly individuals (13). On the contrary, Bulut et al. (9) reported that similar elastic taping application did not have a significant short-term effect on kyphosis angle and clinical balance values in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis-associated thoracic kyphosis. Since there are few studies and conflicting results in the literature regarding the short-term effect of upper back elastic taping applied for postural correction, we think that our study can summarize and clarify the findings in the literature on this subject. As stated in other studies, it was found in our study that the application of upper back elastic taping did not have an influence on simple balance and postural control tasks, but improved the performance of challenging balance and postural control in such conditions as stability limits and tandem walking.

Elastic taping can improve poor proprioception by increasing sensory input via cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Therefore, patients with poor proprioception, such as PD, may benefit more than healthy individuals with good proprioception (30). It has been reported in studies that short-term elastic tape application on the lower back improves the trunk position sense and trunk postural control in healthy women (31). There are few studies emphasizing that elastic taping applied to the upper back can change balance and postural stability parameters in a short time in stroke, another neurological disease in which proprioception is reduced, but there are no studies examining this in PD (29,32,33). Therefore, in our study, we investigated the short-term effects of elastic taping on balance and postural control. In our study, the short-term effect of elastic taping, which we applied for a single session, emerged in active and challenging conditions such as tandem walking and stability limits. After the application, walking speed in the Tandem Walk test, maximum excursions and endpoint values in the LOS test increased.

The improvement in the values of the LOS test, which evaluates postural control by measuring the active stability limits of the individual, indicates better balance and postural control (19,34). As the disease stage progresses in PD, LOS parameters worsen (movement speed decreases, endpoint and maximum excursion values decrease significantly) and the risk of falling increases with the increase in trunk rigidity and decrease in trunk coordination (19,34). The improvement in this test performance after some rehabilitation approaches used in PD reflects the improvement in postural strategy. All rehabilitation approaches that will improve the LOS parameters are important in order to increase the independence of the patients in daily life and to reduce the risk of falling. It is thought that elastic taping, which is one of these approaches, can improve the anticipatory postural adjustments and increase postural stability by increasing proprioceptive stimulation in neurological patients. When the studies investigating the short-term effect of elastic taping in neurological diseases were examined, it was stated that calf taping in patients with Multiple Sclerosis reduced postural instability by improving the standing balance. It has been reported that ankle taping increases stability limits in patients with stroke, and trunk taping improves dynamic balance and dynamic postural control (32,35,36). Unlike other studies, in our study, elastic taping was applied to the upper back and only the maximum excursions and the end point values were observed to significantly increase. Elastic taping may have provided a biomechanical advantage with increased proprioceptive input in challenging conditions such as reaching the end point of stability limits in patients. Poor performance of an individual with PD in the LOS test indicates that the individual’s functionality decreases and the risk of falling increases. Since patients cannot move their trunks correctly within the limits of stability, they experience imbalance during activities of daily living in which body weight is displaced, such as walking and reaching for objects (19,37). We think that the elastic tape, which can stay on the skin up to 1 week after application, will provide proprioceptive support to the patients, especially in dynamic and challenging conditions such as reaching, walking, sitting and standing in daily life and will help them to perform these functions without experiencing imbalance.

In the only study in the literature in which elastic taping was applied in PD, it was stated that taping applied within the scope of postural rehabilitation program (stretching, postural training, proprioceptive discrimination exercises and elastic taping to the trunk) did not affect dynamic balance performances (measured with Timed Up and Go and Berg Balance scale) (38). In our study, in which we applied elastic taping to increase postural control and to give proprioceptive input to the trunk, taping had no effect on dynamic balance values such as STS and NWT, but a significant increase was observed in tandem gait speed. Elastic taping made a significant difference in dynamic balance values only in this test because the tasks in the TWT were more demanding than in other tests, and patients with early-stage PD showed imbalance, especially in active and challenging conditions (39). However, tandem walking is a determinant of general mobility and walking difficulties in PD. Difficulty in walking in tandem is more pronounced in advanced stages of PD, where overall mobility decreases and the risk of falling increases (40). For this reason, applications that can be made to improve this gait before the disease stage progresses are important. This increase in tandem walking speed in our study shows us that elastic taping may be beneficial on bradykinesia in PD.

Study Limitations

The lack of a control group is the most important limitation of this study. Follow-up studies involving a control group matched for age and disease stage are required to reduce placebo effects and bias. In these studies, it would be beneficial to make a sham application to blind the subjects to the treatment distribution and to reduce the risk of compliance.


Although there are many studies in the literature examining the short-term effect of elastic taping in different disease groups, our study is the first to investigate the short term effects of elastic taping on balance and postural control in PD. It is stated in the literature that the decrease in the LOS test endpoint and maximum excursion and TWT walking speed values typically indicate balance problems, poor postural control ability, and bradykinesia in patients with PD. In our study, we observed a short-term improvement in these parameters after taping. In the light of all this information, our study offers physiotherapists an alternative method, elastic taping, which can be effective in improving balance and postural control in the early-stage of PD. We think that our study will offer an insight into other studies that will investigate elastic taping in PD in the future.


Ethics Committee Approval: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Dokuz Eylül University with the protocol number 3013-GOA and decision number 2016/29-19.

Informed Consent: The objectives and methods were read to the patients who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study, and an informed consent form was signed.

Peer-review: Externally peer reviewed.

Authorship Contributions

Surgical and Medical Practices: E.G., B.D.Ç., R.Ç., B.B., Concept: E.G., B.D.Ç., R.Ç., B.B., Design: E.G., B.D.Ç., R.Ç., B.B., Data Collection or Processing: E.G., B.D.Ç., R.Ç., Analysis or Interpretation: E.G., B.D.Ç., Literature Search: E.G., B.D.Ç., Writing: E.G., B.D.Ç., R.Ç., B.B.

Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study received no financial support.


  1. Fukunaga JY, Quitschal RM, Doná F, Ferraz HB, Ganança MM, Caovilla HH. Postural control in Parkinson’s disease. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2014;80:508-14.
  2. Falaki A, Huang X, Lewis MM, Latash ML. Impaired synergic control of posture in Parkinson’s patients without postural instability. Gait Posture 2016;44:209-15.
  3. Song J, Sigward S, Fisher B, Salem GJ. Altered Dynamic Postural Control during Step Turning in Persons with Early-Stage Parkinson’s Disease. Parkinsons Dis 2012;2012:386962.
  4. Doherty KM, van de Warrenburg BP, Peralta MC, Silveira-Moriyama L, Azulay JP, Gershanik OS, et al. Postural deformities in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol 2011;10:538-49.
  5. Doná F, Aquino CC, Gazzola JM, Borges V, Silva SM, Ganança FF, et al. Changes in postural control in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a posturographic study. Physiotherapy 2016;102:272-9.
  6. Morrone M, Miccinilli S, Bravi M, Paolucci T, Melgari JM, Salomone G, et al. Perceptive rehabilitation and trunk posture alignment in patients with Parkinson disease: a single blind randomized controlled trial. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2016;52:799-809.
  7. Hajibashi A, Amiri A, Sarrafzadeh J, Maroufi N, Jalae S. Effect of kinesiotaping and stretching exercise on forward shoulder angle in females with rounded shoulder posture. JRSR 2014;1:78-83.
  8. Abbasi S, Rojhani-Shirazi Z, Shokri E, García-Muro San José F. The effect of Kinesio Taping on postural control in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2018;22:487-92.
  9. Bulut D, Dilek B, Kılınç A, Ellidokuz H, Öncel S. An investigation into the effects of kinesiotaping for posture correction on kyphosis angle, pain, and balance in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis-associated thoracic kyphosis. Arch Osteoporos 2019;14:89.
  10. Rojhani-Shirazi Z, Amirian S, Meftahi N. Effects of Ankle Kinesio Taping on Postural Control in Stroke Patients. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2015;24:2565-71.
  11. Cabreira TS, Coelho KHV, Quemelo PRV. Kinesio Taping effect on postural balance in the elderly. Fisioterapia e Pesquisa 2014;21:333-8.
  12. Morris D, Jones D, Ryan H, Ryan CG. The clinical effects of Kinesio® Tex taping: A systematic review. Physiother Theory Pract 2013;29:259-70.
  13. Prabhu P, Nandakumar S. Immediate effect on balance after correcting postural hyperkyphosis of thoracic spine in elderly population using therapeutic tape. Iternational Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Multidisciplinary Physical Sciences 2013;1:6-12.
  14. Greig AM, Bennell KL, Briggs AM, Hodges PW. Postural taping decreases thoracic kyphosis but does not influence trunk muscle electromyographic activity or balance in women with osteoporosis. Man Ther 2008;13:249-57.
  15. Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality. Neurology 1967;17:427-42.
  16. Goetz CG, Poewe W, Rascol O, Sampaio C, Stebbins GT, Counsell C, et al. Movement Disorder Society Task Force report on the Hoehn and Yahr staging scale: status and recommendations. Mov Disord 2004;19:1020-8.
  17. Chien CW, Hu MH, Tang PF, Sheu CF, Hsieh CL. A comparison of psychometric properties of the smart balance master system and the postural assessment scale for stroke in people who have had mild stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88:374-80.
  18. Pickerill ML, Harter RA. Validity and reliability of limits-of-stability testing: a comparison of 2 postural stability evaluation devices. J Athl Train 2011;46:600-6.
  19. Harro CC, Marquis A, Piper N, Burdis C. Reliability and Validity of Force Platform Measures of Balance Impairment in Individuals With Parkinson Disease. Phys Ther 2016;96:1955-64.
  20. NeuroCom International, Inc. Objective Quantification of Balance and Mobility. Clacamas, OR: 2007.
  21. Hayran M. Sağlık araştırmaları için temel istatistik. Ankara. Omega yayınları. 2011.
  22. Del Din S, Godfrey A, Coleman S, Galna B, Lord S, Rochester L. Time-dependent changes in postural control in early Parkinson’s disease: what are we missing? Med Biol Eng Comput 2016;54:401-10.
  23. Pickering RM, Grimbergen YA, Rigney U, Ashburn A, Mazibrada G, Wood B, et al. A meta-analysis of six prospective studies of falling in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2007;22:1892-900.
  24. Chastan N, Debono B, Maltête D, Weber J. Discordance between measured postural instability and absence of clinical symptoms in Parkinson’s disease patients in the early stages of the disease. Mov Disord 2008;23:366-72.
  25. Kamieniarz A, Michalska J, Marszałek W, Stania M, Słomka KJ, Gorzkowska A, et al. Detection of postural control in early Parkinson’s disease: Clinical testing vs. modulation of center of pressure. PLoS One 2021;1:e0245353.
  26. Chen T, Fan Y, Zhuang X, Feng D, Chen Y, Chan P, et al. Postural sway in patients with early Parkinson’s disease performing cognitive tasks while standing. Neurol Res 2018;40:491-8.
  27. Okada Y, Shibata T, Tamei T, Ikeda K, Kita Y. Rehabilitation for Postural Deformities in Parkinson’s Disease: An Update and Novel Findings. J Nov Physiother 2014;4:233.
  28. Cho YH, Cho K, Park SJ. Effects of trunk rehabilitation with kinesio and placebo taping on static and dynamic sitting postural control in individuals with chronic stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Top Stroke Rehabil 2020;27:610-9.
  29. Mehta M, Joshua AM, Karthikbabu S, Misri Z, Unnikrishnan B, Mithra P, et al. Effect of Taping of Thoracic and Abdominal Muscles on Pelvic Alignment and Forward Reach Distance Among Stroke Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Ann Neurosci 2019;26:10-6.
  30. Wei Z, Wang XX, Wang L. Effect of Short-Term Kinesiology Taping on Knee Proprioception and Quadriceps Performance in Healthy Individuals. Front Physiol 2020;11:603193.
  31. Ruggiero SA, Frost LR, Vallis LA, Brown SH. Effect of short-term application of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk repositioning in healthy females. J Sports Sci 2016;34:862-70.
  32. Lee YJ, Kim JY, Kim SY, Kim KH. The effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in stroke patients. J Phys Ther Sci 2016;28:2385-8.
  33. Liao LY, He XH, Li XZ, Ge YL, Gao Q. Effects of kinesiology taping on trunk function, balance, and mobility in stroke patients: a pilot feasibility study. J Phys Ther Sci 2020;32:359-64.
  34. Yu Y, Liang S, Wang Y, Zhao Y, Zhao J, Li H, et al. Quantitative Analysis of Postural Instability in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Parkinsons Dis 2021;2021:5681870.
  35. Shin YJ, Kim SM, Kim HS. Immediate effects of ankle eversion taping on dynamic and static balance of chronic stroke patients with foot drop. J Phys Ther Sci 2017;29:1029-31.
  36. Cortesi M, Cattaneo D, Jonsdottir J. Effect of kinesio taping on standing balance in subjects with multiple sclerosis: A pilot study\m{1}. NeuroRehabilitation 2011;28:365-72.
  37. Park H, Jung T. Limits of Stability, Tandem Walk, and Adaptation Test in individuals with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A case-control comparison with knee OA and healthy knee controls. Int J Hum Mov Sports Sci 2018;6:23-9.
  38. Capecci M, Serpicelli C, Fiorentini L, Censi G, Ferretti M, Orni C, et al. Postural rehabilitation and Kinesio taping for axial postural disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2014;95:1067-75.
  39. Beretta VS, Gobbi LT, Lirani-Silva E, Simieli L, Orcioli-Silva D, Barbieri FA. Challenging Postural Tasks Increase Asymmetry in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. PLoS One 2015;10:e0137722.
  40. El-Kholy WAH, Taha HM, Hamada SM, Sayed MAF. Effect of different modes of therapy on vestibular and balance dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences 2015;16:123-31.